All cells come from preexisting cells. This statement tells us that cells reproduce and the way they do this is through cell division. Cellular division also known as cellular reproduction is a process in which cells make an identical or similar copy of themselves.  

Asexual reproduction occurs when one cell (the parent cell) duplicates itself to form an identical offspring. Archaea, Bacteria, some Fungi, some Protists, and some plants, algae, and animals reproduce asexually. In sexual reproduction two parent organisms mate and their genetic information (DNA) combine to make offspring that are similar but not identical. This is how most plants and animals reproduce.  

There are various animal behaviors that encourage sexual reproduction. Mating refers to the union of a male and female of the same species for reproduction. Adults may have one mate called monogamy or many mates called polygamy. In many species, the male will engage in various courtship behaviors and the female will choose which male to mate with based on the courtship behaviors. These courtship behaviors can come in the form of different vocalizations, dances, or plumage (feathers on a bird). This is called sexual selection when the female chooses the most favorable male partner.  

Animals increase their species’ chance at reproduction and overall species’ success through herd defense and pack hunting. By grouping together in herd defense, it lowers the risk of one individual getting eaten. By hunting in a pack, this increases the packs overall ability to hunt and obtain food. Both these survival tactics increase the likelihood of survival for the majority and thus increases the likelihood of reproduction.  

Plants also have various strategies that encourage reproduction among a species. Because plants can’t move around like animals, plants must rely on factors such as wind, water, insects, and other animals to help them reproduce. Plants can release their pollen in the air and the wind can take the pollen to fertilize another plant of the same species for reproduction. Plants can attract other animals and insects to the plant with bright flowers or sweet nectars. These animals can then spread the pollen from the flowers to other flowers which allow for reproduction. Some plants developed spines on their seeds to hook onto other animals that transport the seed to a new location for the plant to grow. Other animals will eat the seeds of a plant and when they excrete the seed in their feces, the plant can then grow in a new location.